长江师范学院大学英语课程学业达标考试复习提纲
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长江师范学院大学英语课程学业达标考试复习提纲


I. Vocabulary and Structure

Directions: Choose the best one to complete each sentence.  

1. 

I'd like to take __________ of this opportunity to thank all of you for your co-operation.

A) profit

B) benefit

C) occasion

D) advantage


2. 

In copying this paper, be careful not to leave __________ any words.

A) out

B) alone

C) off

D) behind


3. 

People who cannot __________ between colors are said to be color-blind.

A) compare

B) separate

C) establish

D) contrast


4. 

We finally __________ an agreement after a lot of hard bargaining.

A) reached

B) did

C) arrived

D) drove


5. 

How could he __________ from believing that she was changing her mind?

A) avoid

B) stop

C) prevent

D) keep


6. 

It is desirable that the airplane _____________ as light as possible.

A) is

B) were

C) be

D) had been


7. 

We came finally ___________ the conclusion that she has been telling lies all the time.

A) of

B) into

C) to

D) at


8. 

I am not used to speaking ______________ public.

A) in

B) at

C) on

D) to


9. 

He didn't live up to ____________ had been expected of him.

A) what

B) which

C) that

D) all


10. 

She did not feel ______________ going out, as she had a slight headache.

A) about

B) like

C) after

D) for


11. 

The price of gold rose again, partly __________ news about war.

A) result in

B) go with

C) because

D) due to


12. 

Responsibilities _________________ becoming a father.

A) charge for

B) go with

C) save for

D) go through


13. 

If you ___________ in your rent again, you may get thrown out.

A) fall behind

B) account for

C) charge for

D) come to


14. 

The country has _____ too many wars in the past few decades; its people are longing for peace so much.

A) prevented from

B) resulted in

C) gone through

D) gone with


15. 

She wouldn't even take a drink, _____________ stay for dinner.

A) much more

B) much few

C) much lesser

D) much less


16. 

The first popularly chosen president has ________ the political representatives over the slow pace of economic change.

A) prevented from

B) charged for

C) accounted for

D) clashed with


17. 

Unless we get more money, we'll be ____________ finishing this enquiry program.

A) separated from

B) recovered from

C) prevented from

D) charged from


18. 

The painter lived more than a decade in Europe, _______ he could be in close contact with other cubists(立体派艺术家).

A) where

B) in which

C) that

D) in that


19. 

_______ Tom is supposed to make an appointment with the dentist, he says he is too busy.

A) Howeve


B) Whomever

C) Whenever

D) Whatever


20. 

Every organism produces waste products no longer useful to itself and which _______ to accumulate would in fact be harmful.

A) if they allowed

B) if were allowed

C) if was allows

D) if allowed


21. 

I didn't make a _______ mistake next time.

A) like

B) same

C) near

D) similar


22. 

Life insurance, _______ available only to young, healthy persons, can now be obtained for old people.

A) before

B) after

C) former

D) previously


23. 

He _______ lives in the house where he was born.

A) already

B) yet

C) still

D) ever


24. 

Are you going to the football game? No. The tickets are _______ expensive for me.

A) very much

B) so much

C) far too

D) highly


25. 

For tonight's homework, do pages forty and forty-one in the workbook. Professor Hones, I think that is _______ work.

A) too much

B) much the more

C) too hard

D) hardest


26. 

Mary was going to a wedding so she brushed _______ well.

A) her hair

B) her hairs

C) the hair

D) the hairs


27. 

A series of problems _______ cropped up recently.

A) have

B) has

C) is

D) are


28. 

The officials in the _______ at London Airport were very polite.

A) Custom

B) Customs

C) custom

D) customs


29. 

There _______ a lot of _______ on the roads yesterday.

A) was ... traffic

B) were ... traffics

C) was ... traffics

D) were ... traffic


30. 

_______ is easily seen.

A) The advantage of the economic reform

B) The economic's reform advantage

C) The reform of the economic advantage

D) The economic reform's advantage


31. 

England is an island country. _______ consists of three principal islands, and _______ climate is generally mild.

A) It ... its

B) She ... her

C) He ... his

D) She ... its


32. 

England took arms against _______ enemy.

A) his

B) her

C) hers

D) its


33. 

That man looks familiar to me. He reminds _______ Dr. Richards.

A) me to

B) me

C) me for

D) me of


34. 

It seems very difficult _______.

A) to stop the child to cry

B) restraining the child to cry

C) to keep the child from crying

D) holding the child's crying


35. 

He thought he could talk Mr. Robinson _______ buying some expensive equipment.

A) to

B) about

C) into

D) on


36. 

When Laura finally arrived she apologized _______ so late.

A) for to come

B) that she was coming

C) for coming

D) to come


37. 

This boy is able to repeat from memory ______ 200 short poems.

A) up to

B) up till

C) as to

D) as far


38. 

In Shanghai, city planners have made many places for green belts and garden _____.

A) places

B) lots

C) spaces

D) strips


39. 

Though we have spent two nights in _______ the problem, we still can't find a solution.

A) working on

B) working out

C) working up

D) working in


40. 

It was such a wonderful day that they decided to take a day _____ to the mountain.

A) away

B) voyage

C) boat trip

D) excursion


41. 

With the increasing of environmental awareness, many green belts _______ all over the country.

A) spring off

B) spring up

C) spring in

D) spring out


42. 

Because of its large number of bamboo trees and comfortable climate, Sichuan is home _____ the panda.

A) to

B) of

C) for

D) by


43. 

Sunglasses are used to _____ people's eyes from the light of the sun.

A) prevent

B) protect

C) stop

D) save


44. 

The boss ______ his employees' idea of an early holiday in the spring.

A) frowned at

B) frowned off

C) frowned down

D) frowned on


45. 

The company offered him high pay as an ______ to accept the job.

A) inducement

B) aim

C) invitation

D) apple


46. 

He himself is very uncertain ________ whether it is the right job for him, although everybody else thinks he is highly competent.

A) as of

B) as to

C) as from

D) such as


47. 

No one imagined that the apparently _______ business man was really a criminal.

A) respective

B) respectable

C) respectful

D) reverent


48. 

Do you think that the labor bill will be passed? Oh, yes. It's _______ that it will.

A) almost surely

B) very likely

C) near positive

D) quite certainly


49. 

David may _______, but we must go at once.

A) stay lately

B) have stayed very late

C) stay a little

D) stay late


50. 

When can we come to visit you? Any time you feel _______.

A) so

B) for it

C) to

D) like it


51. 

Small arms _______ often carried by the soldiers.

A) are

B) has

C) was

D) have


52. 

Every means _______ been tried to solve the difficult problem.

A) have

B) has

C) is

D) are


53. 

Mrs. Barry is beginning to lose her _______.

A) look

B) looking

C) lookings

D) looks


54. 

Modern machinery _______ been installed in this newly-built factory.

A) has

B) have

C) is

D) are


55. 

They have never heard any _______.

A) a customer complaint

B) the customer's complaints

C) customer's complaint

D) the customers' complaints


56. 

In many colleges, students don't have sufficient access _______ the library.

A) to

B) at

C) in

D) from


57. 

My car broke _______ so I had to come by bus.

A) down

B) over

C) with

D) beyond


58. 

By the time the war _______, most of the people had already left.

A) broke out

B) became widespread

C) spoiled the country

D) intervened


59. 

To maintain one's belief is to stick _______ it.

A) for

B) on

C) to

D) after


60. 

We were _______ for half an hour in the traffic and so we arrived late.

A) put back

B) broke down

C) held up

D) kept off


61. 

The weather forecast was good so it should turn _______ fine after all.

A) into

B) out

C) over

D) up


62. 

The dog was run _______ by a bus and killed.

A) over

B) up

C) into

D) against


63. 

He's working too hard and he's run _______. He needs a rest.

A) apart

B) up

C) down

D) over


64. 

They were so far away that I couldn't _______ their faces clearly.

A) see through

B) make up

C) make at

D) make out


65. 

He'11 soon get _______ his disappointment and be quite cheerful again by the morning.

A) out of

B) over

C) away

D) through


66. 

We can never relax in this office. New problems are continually _______.

A) coming out

B) coming up

C) raising

D) presenting


67. 

As soon as his party came _______ power they changed the law.

A) into

B) out

C) away

D) at


68. 

Tom was absorbed _______ his work.

A) at

B) in

C) with

D) on


69. 

Mr. Wang is an engineer _______ profession.

A) with

B) at

C) on

D) by

II. Cloze

Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the correct one from the choices given to fill in each blank.

Text 1 

Eastern Europe is considered the most polluted(70) (at, for, of) all the world's industrialized areas because heavy metals (71) (leading to, like, from) coal mining have contaminated the area's waters. Many rivers, land, and forests are biologically (72) (dead, died, relieved) from pollution. Ghana's forest protection program has succeeded (73) (for, on, in) strengthening the country's agricultural base and (74) (recovered, bringing, destroyed) a new source (75) (by, in, of) wealth to villagers. It remains to be seen (76) (weather, what, whether) these measures will have enough impact to (77) (promote, rise, slow) the rate of removing the forests. Indonesia is facing the serious problems of providing enough food, shelter and employment (78) (with, that, for) its large population, and (79) (to exercise, encouraging, stopping) birth control.

Text 2 

A young couple lived together for two years during which they came to understand, and(80) (respected, respect, respecting) each other. They honestly confronted the weaknesses and strengths of each (81) (others, others', other's) characters. Their racial and cultural differences (82) (enlarged, enhanced, ensured) their relationship and taught them much about tolerance, compromise, and honesty.

The woman sometimes wondered why her black boyfriend was(83) (so, as, to) involved with racial issues. She seemed to forget the more secret forms of (84) (racism, race, racial) hatred in American society. The couple held no false hopes (85) (about, into, for) what the future held for them as a married, mixed couple in America. The (86) (continuous, continual, continue) source of their strength was their mutual trust and respect. They wanted to avoid the mistake made by many couples who married for the wrong reasons -- only to find out 10, 20, or 30 years (87) (after, sooner, later) they overlooked serious personality conflicts (88) (expectation, expecting, expected) that marriage was an automatic way to make everything work  (89) (through, about, out)  right.

Text 3 

Every year an average of 78,000 foreign high school students(90) (are, goes, go) to study in the United States. Their reasons for studying overseas include: (91) (to improve, to improve on, improving) their English, finishing high school, and learning (92) (as much as, as well as, as good as) possible about a different culture. Among the definite difficulties they face are finding a host family to live (93) (on, by, with) and covering all personal items like clothing and long distance calls and some medical bills. These teenagers suddenly have to learn to adapt (94) (themselves, to themselves, by themselves), but parents always help as their children are not whatsoever accustomed (95) (for, with, to) traveling by themselves. Leaving behind their families when getting aboard the plane departing for America is their most challenging experience; next is awaiting their domestic flights to their temporary destinations throughout America. After they have settled, students complain (96) (for, on, about) unusual foods, painful longings for home or regulations (97) (such as, established, drawn up) how early to be home on weekend nights or risk (98) (to be punished, punished, being punished).

Students with little command of English must take private language lessons and,(99) (however, although, in turn), increase their total study expenses.

Text 4 

A woman weeps while her daughter smokes the same brand of cigarettes that killed her grandfather. Tobacco advertisements and movies had hopelessly hooked the grandfather on smoking(100) (but, and, as) he never looked (101) (good, as, well) like the actors in them. When his daughter was only sixteen, his breathing was a wheeze     (102) (embarrassed, embarrassment, embarrassing) to hear; he rested often (103) (and, for, while) climbing stairs; he usually coughed for an hour; he leaned (104) (at, for, on) something for support; he was so slim (105) (then, than, that) his weight gain near the end of his life was unnoticeable. Now his daughter is deeply hurt; she was so careful (106) (rising, bringing, raising) her own daughter but for what purpose? To see all her care thrown away as her (107) (sixteen-years-old, sixteen-years-olds, sixteen-year-old) daughter slowly kills herself? The mother feels smoking is self-battering; it also batters others who helplessly (108) (stand by, stand up, stand for) and watch a loved one die. The mother (109) (looked at, found, watched) her father's slow death; to lose one member of her family to the rich tobacco companies is enough.

Text 5 

Your name is not only your calling card; it also may(110) (determine, find, recover) how your life will develop. People have studied the energies associated (111) (to, by, in) names (112) (by, in, for) centuries, but The Hidden Truth of Your Name is his first book to combine their fascinating results (113) (into, within, on) one interesting resource and (114) (offer, reveal, deal) detailed deSCRIPTions (115) (for, with, of) 750 American names. Written by a team of language experts and specialists, this entertaining book guides you (116) (by, for, through) three difficult (117) (but, and, for) explainable old methods (118) (to, of, for) prediction and shows you (119) (what, when, how) to apply them to create a careful and thorough picture of any name you choose.

Text 6 

The writer says we often project name prejudices on people. For example, one of his friends confessed that(120) (while, as, whereas) working with a nursery-school's group of (121) (four-years-olds, four-years-old, four-year-olds), she confused two boys' personalities (122) (because, since, because of) their names. Name prejudices can also (123) (effect, determine, affect) classroom achievement. One study showed teachers (124) (gave, insisted, preferred)  consistently lower grades (125) (on, by, for) essays written by boys with less appealing names (126) (then, than, when) they gave to the very same papers (127) (for, with, by) only the writers' names changed. (128) (Similarly, However, Nevertheless), girls' popularity can be related (129) (to, by, into) their names so the writer suggests that if your name doesn't seem to suit you, you can with some determination change your name.

Text 7 

Move ahead or(130) (falling, fall, fell) behind is the American attitude that leads to researching, experimenting and exploring. Time is a (131) (really, real, much), precious resource to them so every minute must count. City people are always hurrying to get where they are going, seeking attention and racing (132) (through, though, past) meals. Smiles, brief conversations, little exchanges with strangers, relaxed business chats over coffee or a welcoming cup of tea don't (133) (occurs, occur, happened) because people hate wasting too much time. Americans assess others professionally rather than socially, so they start talking business immediately (134) (since, although, so) they are always conscious of time. Because they work hard at (135) (saving, save, except) time, they have meetings (136) (through, in, for) communication equipment like television screens and telephones rather than personal contacts. In America, telephones save time and energy because telephone service is excellent (137) (whereas, moreover, furthermore) mail is less efficient. Usually, the more important a job is, the  (138) (most, more, much) effort will be poured  (139) (onto, into, for) it to get it moving.

III. Reading Comprehension

Directions: Read the following passage(s) carefully and do the multiple-choice questions. 

Text 1 

Charlie Chaplin has broken all records in making people laugh. No one has so set a whole world laughing as the little man with the walking stick and the overlarge shoes.

Much has been written about Chaplin's art and his career, and opinions have ranged widely. But perhaps those who called him the most general human being of our time came closest to the truth. Those who have called him a genius stress the timeless and common qualities in his work. It is an art filled with sad elements and deep human feeling, with which an audience cannot help but become involved. It is for these reasons, I believe, that the figure of Charlie has attracted generation after generation.

All the writers who give accounts of Chaplin's life agree that Charlie's unhappy early years in the area in London where houses were dirty and worn had a great influence on his development and on the type of films he made. Chaplin himself emphasizes it in his memoirs (回忆录). The more one reads about his earliest period, the more one tends to agree. Indeed, his suffering youth had a lasting influence on him.

Chaplin was never afraid to deal with subjects causing much disagreement in his films. He gave a humorous performance on war only a few weeks before the American soldiers came home from World War I in 1918. This was regarded as madness, but the performance was well received. So perfectly did it hit the nail on the head that even the returning soldiers found it impossible to hate it and deeply appreciated this short and humorous performance on what for them had been unpleasant reality. Chaplin gave numerous performances attacking capital governments, satirizing (讽刺) the cruelty of the machine age and even making fun of Hitler.

Years after his death, the funny films of motion picture actor and director Charlie Chaplin continue to be popular. He is particularly well known for his success as a creator of humorous presentations that make fun of people, the establishment, or networks.

140. 

All of the following about Charlie Chaplin are true except __________.

A) he was born in the USA

B) he was a great film actor

C) he had an unhappy early life

D) he made fun of Hitler in his films


141. 

According to the author, Charlie Chaplin has been popular with generation after generation because ____.

A) he set the whole world laughing

B) his performances get people involved

C) his works appeal to people in different periods

D) both B and C


142. 

According to Charlie Chaplin's life history writers, ____ had a strong influence on the type of films he made.

A) the society in which he lived

B) the audience who praised and admired him

C) those who called him a genius

D) his unhappy early years in the poor area in London


143. 

According to the passage, which of the following is true?

A) There are timeless qualities in Chaplin's work because he didn't involve himself in political affairs.

B) Chaplin became popular years after his death.

C) Chaplin's performance is funny without any sad elements.

D) Chaplin's films are the combinations of funny and sad elements.


144. 

This passage was ____________.

A) written by Charlie Chaplin

B) written about Charlie Chaplin

C) advertising one of Charlie Chaplin's films

D) written for students to learn film-making

Text 2 

Although Beethoven could sit down and compose easily, his really great compositions did not come easily at all. They cost him a great deal of hard work and he always found it hard to satisfy himself.

When he was 28, he began to notice a strange noise in his ears. As it grew worse, he went to see doctors, and was told that he was going deaf. This was too much for any composer to bear. Beethoven was without hope; he was sure that he was going to die. He went to the countryside where he wrote a long good-bye letter to his brothers, describing how sad and lonely his deafness made him. He longed to die, and said to death, Come when you will; I shall meet you bravely.

In fact, Beethoven did something braver than dying. He gathered his courage and went on writing music, though he could hear what he wrote more and more faintly. He wrote the music for which we remember him best after he became deaf. This music was very different from any that had been composed before. Instead of the artistic and grand music that earlier composers had written for their rich listeners, Beethoven wrote stormy, exciting music which reminds us of his troubled and courageous life. His Heroic Symphony (交响乐)  and Fifth Symphony both show his courage in struggling with his fate.

In time he went completely deaf, but he wrote more creatively than ever, for he could hear his music in his mind. He was lonely and often unhappy but in spite of this, he often wrote joyful music, such as his last symphony, the Ninth. Because of his courage and strong will to triumph, his music has given joy and encouragement to millions of people.

145. 

How did Beethoven's deafness affect him?

A) It killed him.

B) It stopped his writing music.

C) It drove him mad.

D) It helped him create good music.


146. 

Which of the following music works written by Beethoven was joyful?

A) No 3 Symphony.

B) No 5 Symphony.

C) No 7 Symphony.

D) No 9 Symphony.


147. 

Beethoven longed to die because ____________.

A) he had told death he would meet it bravely

B) he felt his deafness was too much for him to bear as a composer

C) he wouldn't be able to write music for rich listeners after becoming deaf

D) he wouldn't be able to support his family


148. 

Which of the following is the best title for this passage?

A) Music and Musicians

B) The Music of Fate

C) Hard to Satisfy

D) Deafness in Music


149. 

According to the passage, which of the following is true?

A) When he was partly deaf, Beethoven's music became more and more gentle and faint.

B) His music became more and more artistic although he was deaf.

C) He wrote fainter and fainter music after he went deaf.

D) He composed exciting and encouraging music that reflected his struggle with his fate.

Text 3 

Culture shock might be called an occupational disease of people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most ailments, it has its own symptoms and cure.

Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. These cues, which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.

Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or full of goodwill you may be, a series of props have been knocked from under you followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes the discomfort. The ways of the host country are bad because they make me feel bad. When foreigners in a strange land get together to grouse about the host country and its people, you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To the foreigner everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes trip home to bring one back to reality.

150. 

According to the passage, culture shock ______.

A) is an occupational disease of foreign people

B) may lead to very serious symptoms

C) is actually not a disease

D) is incurable


151. 

According to the passage, culture shock results from ______.

A) the sudden change of the social atmosphere and customs

B) the sudden change of our daily habits

C) the sudden loss of our own signs and symbols

D) the discomfort that we feel when faced with a foreigner


152. 

Which one of the following may not be the symptoms of culture shock?

A) You don't know how to express your gratitude.

B) You don't know how to greet other people.

C) You suddenly forget what a word means.

D) You don't understand why a foreigner shrugs.


153. 

How would a person who stays abroad most probably react when he or she is frustrated by the culture shock according to the passage?

A) He is most likely to refuse to absorb the strange environment at first.

B) He is ready to accept the change and adapt himself to the new environment.

C) He or she is most likely to take a trip home when frustrated by the strange environment.

D) He or she may begin to hate the people or things around him or her.


154. 

This passage is most likely taken from ______.

A) a news report

B) a grammar book

C) a book on medicine and psychology

D) an essay on human customs

Text 4 

Only special plants can survive the terrible climate of a desert, for these are regions where the range of the soil temperature throughout the year can be over 75℃. Furthermore, during the summer there are few clouds in the sky to protect plants from the sun's rays. Another problem is the fact that there are frequently strong winds that drive small, sharp sands into the plants, tearing and damaging them. The most difficult problem for all forms of plant life, however, is the fact that each year the entire amount of rainfall occurs during a few days or weeks in spring.

Grasses and flowers in a desert survive from one year to the next by existing through the long, hot, dry season in the form of seeds. These seeds remain inactive unless the right amount of rain falls. If no rain falls, or if there is not enough rainfall, they wait until the next year, or even still the next.Another factor that helps these plants to survive is the fact that their life cycles are short. By the time that the water from the spring rains disappears - just a few weeks after it falls - such plants no longer need any.

The perennials (多年生植物) have special elements which enable them to survive as plants for several years. Thus, nearly all desert perennials have extensive root systems below ground and a small shoot (枝叶) system above ground. The large root network enables the plant to absorb as much water as possible in a short time. The small shoot system, on the other hand, considerably limits water loss by evaporation (蒸发).

Another characteristic of many desert perennials is that after the rainy season they lose their leaves as they prepare for the long, dry season, just as trees in wetter climates lose theirs as they prepare for the winter. This reduces their water loss by evaporation during the dry season. Then, in the next rainy season, they come fully alive once more, and grow new branches, leaves and flowers, just as the grasses and flowers in a desert do.


155. 

According to the passage, ordinary plants cannot survive the desert weather as a result of the following factors except _____.

A) the strong wind

B) too much sun

C) too much rainfall

D) the special temperature


156. 

Why can grasses and flowers in desert survive according to the passage?

A) They need little water.

B) They like dry weather.

C) They stay in the form of seeds during the difficult seasons.

D) With long roots, they do not depend on the rain to get enough water.


157. 

What is talked about the shoot system of the perennials (多年生植物) in the passage?

A) The shoot system can help the perennials survive in a desert.

B) The shoot system decides the appearance of the perennials in a desert.

C) The shoot system limits the function of the perennials' branches.

D) The shoot system may lose the amount of water the roots can absorb.


158. 

According to the passage, spring is the best time for plants in desert _________.

A) to find a shady place

B) to get water for the year

C) to reduce water loss

D) to enjoy the sun's rays


159. 

What is the main point of the last paragraph?

A) A comparison between the plants in different areas.

B) The growth of new leaves in the rainy season.

C) Water loss by evaporation in the dry season.

D) The survival of the perennials in deserts.

Text 5 

Earthquake (地震)! People all around the world fear earthquakes because they cause so much damage and death. Consider the following facts: One earthquake struck San Fernando Valley region of Southern California on January 17, 1994. The earthquake caused 57 deaths, over 5,000 injuries, and extensive building damage. In fact some people estimate that the earthquake caused millions of dollars in property damage. That earthquake qualifies as one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history.

On January 17, 1995, the Kobe earthquake struck south-central Japan. This earthquake resulted in over 5,400 deaths and many thousands of injuries. The damage costs were estimated at 150 million dollars. Although this earthquake was only rated as a medium earthquake, it caused so much damage because it produced a fault break straight through the business area of the city.

These statistics are very frightening. Many people wonder if the number of earthquakes is increasing. In reality, the number of earthquakes has actually decreased in recent years. However, because of improved world communication, people receive more news and information than ever before. For example, in the last 20 years, we have been able to locate more earthquakes a year because there are more earthquake measuring stations in the world. These additional stations help us to locate many small earthquakes, which were not noticed years ago.

Many scientists are trying to predict earthquakes, but these predictions are very uncertain. Scientists cannot figure out the exact location, time, or force of an earthquake. Furthermore, the predicted earthquake may not take place. As a result, scientists do not think it is a useful idea to announce that an earthquake will take place on a certain day. Instead, most people are trying to design structures such as buildings, dams, and bridges that can survive earthquakes. People can reduce loss of life, injuries, and property damage by properly preparing themselves, their homes, work places, and communities for a major earthquake. After all, it is possible to survive an earthquake.

160. 

Why was the earthquake that struck the region of Southern California on January 17, 1994 considered to be one of the worst natural disasters in U. S. history?

A) It caused 157 deaths.

B) It caused 5,000 more injuries.

C) It caused 57 deaths, over 5,000 injuries, and extensive building damage.

D) It caused damages not known.


161. 

Why did the earthquake on January 17, 1995 result in such huge damage in Japan?

A) It caught the people there unprepared.

B) It was a very serious earthquake.

C) It struck Japan at midnight.

D) It struck the business area of the city.


162. 

How many people died in the earthquake that struck south-central Japan in 1995?

A) More than 5,400.

B) About 150.

C) Many thousands of deaths.

D) About 5,000.


163. 

What is the reason why people have heard more about earthquakes in recent years?

A) The number of earthquakes is increasing.

B) We have been able to locate more earthquakes than before.

C) We have built many earthquake-measuring stations.

D) World communication has been improved so that people receive more news than before.


164. 

How can people reduce loss from earthquakes according to the passage?

A) Make earthquake predictions more precise.

B) Design structures that can survive earthquakes.

C) Get ourselves prepared for earthquakes.

D) Rely more on communities.

Text 6 

While plant and animal species are disappearing at a rapidly increasing rate throughout the world, scientists note some success stories. For example, the number of elephants killed illegally in Africa has fallen sharply. 89 thousand were killed in 1983. 46 thousand were killed one year later.

This happened because African countries agreed to establish export limits on ivory from elephants. Ivory is the hard white material that forms an elephant's two long teeth, or tusks. Countries that import ivory are refusing to accept ivory shipments that do not have legal export documents.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species in a treaty signed by 91 nations led to the program for saving endangered elephants in Africa.

Successful efforts also have been made in protecting Africa's endangered mountain gorillas. Almost 400 of the gorillas survive in a volcano area on the border of Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire. The mountain gorilla population has remained about the same for 15 years. This happened partly, because Rwanda developed an important business that depends on protecting the gorillas.     Visitors there can pay to get close to watch the gorillas in the animals' traditional home area.

Another successful program is to take endangered animals out of their natural homes. The animals are put into zoos or other protected areas where they can reproduce in safety. The goal of many of these programs is to produce enough animals to put back into the wild.

165. 

What is the best title for this passage?

A) Wild Plants and Animals

B) Protecting Endangered Species

C) Saving Endangered Elephants and Mountain Gorillas

D) Successful Efforts Made in Protecting Africa's Endangered Mountain Gorillas


166. 

The number of elephants killed illegally in Africa has decreased greatly in that ______.

A) African countries agreed to establish export limits on ivory from elephants

B) countries that import ivory from elephants are refusing to accept ivory shipments

C) there are less elephants now in Africa

D) there is a program for saving endangered elephants in Africa


167. 

In Africa, the number of elephants killed illegally in 1983 and 1984 was _____.

A) 89 000

B) 13 500

C) 135 000

D) 153 000


168. 

The number of mountain gorillas has remained about the same for many years partly because of ______.

A) the development of an important business that depends on protecting the gorillas

B) the protection of gorillas

C) Rwanda developed an important business that depends on protecting the gorillas

D) the protection from the gorillas


169. 

The phrase the wild in Paragraph 5 refers to _____.

A) the animal world

B) the natural areas full of animals and plants

C) the wild nature

D) the wild animals

Text 7 

Once we thought of pollution as meaning simply smog --- the choking, stinging, dirty air that hovers over cities. But air pollution, while it is still the most dangerous, is only one type of contamination among several which attack the most basic life functions.

Through the controlled use of insecticides, man has polluted the land, killing the wildlife. By dumping sewage and chemicals into rivers and lakes, we have contaminated our drinking water. We are polluting the oceans, too, killing the fish and thereby depriving ourselves of an invaluable food supply.

Part of the problem is our exploding population. More and more people produce more wastes. But this problem is intensified by our throw-away technology. Each year Americans dispose of 7 million autos, 20 million tons of waste paper, 25 million pounds of toothpaste tubes and 48 million cans. We throw away bum wrappers, newspapers, and paper plates. It is no longer fashionable to reuse anything. Today almost everything is disposable. Instead of repairing a toaster or a radio, it is easier and cheaper to buy a new one and discard the old, even though 95 percent of its parts may still be functioning. Baby diapers, which used to be made of reusable cloth, are now paper throw-aways. Soon we will wear clothing made of paper: Wear it once and throw it away.  will be the fashion.

Where is this all to end? Are we turning the world into a gigantic dump, or is there hope that we can solve the pollution problem? Fortunately, solutions are in sight. A few of them are positively ingenious.

170. 

Which one of the following problems is NOT caused by environmental pollution?

A) smog and dirty air

B) contaminated water and dead fish

C) contaminated food supply

D) too many cars


171. 

Which one of the following actions will contribute to the improvement of our environment?

A) Use purified water.

B) Adopt controlled use of insecticide.

C) Increase the use of throw-away goods.

D) Stop dumping sewage into rivers and lakes.


172. 

What problem does the author think intensifies the environmental pollution?

A) El Nino and La Nina.

B) The throw-away technology.

C) Our exploding population.

D) Man's controlled use of insecticide.


173. 

What is the author's attitude toward the throw-away clothing?

A) He is for it.

B) He is against it.

C) He is indifferent to it.

D) He is against it but he still looks forward to it.


174. 

What is the author's opinion about the future of our environment?

A) He is pessimistic about it.

B) He is optimistic about it.

C) He thinks that what we have done by now is quite satisfactory.

D) He thinks that what we will achieve in the future will solve all the current problems.

Text 8 

Coffee is one of the most popular drinks throughout the world today. In fact, according to some estimates, over 30% of all adults in the world drink coffee at least once a day on the average.

Coffee contains a kind of drug called caffeine (咖啡因). Caffeine is a chemical substance that stimulates (刺激) the nerves of the body. Drinking coffee tends to make people a little bit more awake --- at least for a short time --- because of this stimulating effect on the nervous system. A cup of coffee has, on the average, about 3% caffeine in it.

One story of the discovery of the coffee plant relates to this effect of caffeine. According to the story, coffee was discovered in East Africa. The story says that coffee was first found by a goat farmer named Kaldi. This was about the year 850.

Kaldi was leading his animals through the mountains and the goats were stopping repeatedly to eat the plants near the path. Suddenly, some of the goats started jumping up and down in a very strange way.

Kaldi figured out that the goats were acting this way because of the plants they were eating. Kaldi himself tried eating some of the green beans that the goats had been eating. He, too, felt the stimulating effect of the beans.

Kaldi wanted to prove what had happened, so he picked some of the beans and took them back to his home village, where he told his story. The green bean got the name Kaffa and later coffee because the beans were discovered in a place called Kaffa in Africa.

Then for years, people used to eat a few of the green Kaffa beans when they were in the mountains and needed extra energy or stimulation. It was later found that the coffee beans could be picked and then dried until they turned brown, and then they could be stored. If the beans were dried and stored, they could be used at any time.

175. 

What is caffeine?

A) A kind of seed.

B) A kind of weed.

C) A kind of drug.

D) A kind of nut.


176. 

What is the purpose of drinking coffee?

A) To become more awake.

B) To become more healthy.

C) To become more giving.

D) To become more clever.


177. 

Coffee was first found by a __________.

A) doctor

B) farmer

C) druggist

D) chemist


178. 

How did the goats react after eating the plants?

A) They fell asleep.

B) They could not find their way home.

C) They started jumping up and down.

D) They wanted to eat more.


179. 

Why did the green bean get the name Kaffa?

A) Because Kaldi loved his home village very much.

B) Because Kaldi's goats loved the green bean very much.

C) Because the beans were discovered in a place so named.

D) Because the beans could be picked and dried.

Text 9 

Pepys and his wife had asked some friends to dinner on Sunday, September 2nd,1666. The servants  were up very late on the Saturday evening, getting everything ready for the next day, and while they were busy they saw the glow of a fire start in the sky. By 3 o'clock on the Sunday morning, the glow had become so bright that one of the servants, Jane, woke her master to see it.     Pepys went to the window to watch it. It seemed fairly far away, so after a time he went back to bed. When he got up in the morning, it looked as though the fire was dying down, though he could still see some flames. So he set to work to tidy (整理) his room and put his things back where he wanted them after the servants had cleaned everything.

While he was doing this, Jane came in to say that she had heard that the fire was a bad one: three hundred houses had been burned down in the night and the fire was still burning. Pepys went out to see for himself. He went to the Tower of London and climbed up on a high part of the building so that he could see what was happening. From there, Pepys could see that it was, indeed, a bad fire and that even the houses on London Bridge were burning. Someone told him that the fire had started in a baker's house in Pudding Lane, and then the flames had quickly spread to the other houses in the narrow lane. So began the Great Fire of London, a fire that lasted nearly five days, destroyed most of the old city and ended, so it is said, at Pie Corner.

180. 

The servants were up very late because __________.

A) they were chatting

B) they were having a party

C) they were preparing for a dinner

D) they were watching a fire


181. 

Pepys went back to bed because __________.

A) he was not interested in chatting about a fire

B) he did not think the fire was anything special

C) the fire was far away

D) the fire had died down


182. 

When Pepys was tidying his room and things, Jane came in and told him that __________.

A) the fire was dying down

B) the fire had been put out

C) the fire was a bad one

D) no flame could be seen


183. 

The fire started ____________.

A) on London Bridge

B) in a baker's house

C) because the lane was too narrow to allow people to come to help

D) because people could not get enough water to put it out


184. 

Pie Corner was ______________.

A) the site of the Tower of London

B) the site of the Great Fire of London

C) the place where the fire ended

D) the place where Pepys lived

Text 10 

In the United States 84 colleges now accept just women. Most of them were established in the 19th century; they were designed to offer women the education they could not receive anywhere else. At that time major universities and colleges accepted only men. In the past 20 years many young women have chosen to study at colleges that accept both men and women. As a result some women's colleges decided to accept men students too. Others, however, refused to change. Now these schools are popular again.

The president of Trinity College in Washington, D.C. said that by the end of the 1980s women began to recognize that studying at the same school with men did not mean women were having an equal chance to learn. The president of Smith College in Massachusetts says a women's college permits women to choose classes and activities freely. For example, she says that in a women's college a higher percentage of students studies mathematics than in a college with both men and women.

Educational experts say men students in the United States usually speak in class more than women students do. In a women's college, women feel freer to say what they think. Women's schools also bring out leadership capabilities in many women. Women are represented everywhere. For example, at a women's college every governing office is held by a woman. Recent studies reportedly show that this leadership continues after college. The studies show American women who went to women's colleges are more likely to hold successful jobs later in life.

185. 

Women's colleges were established to ______.

A) give women the same right of education that men enjoy

B) make changes to traditional educational system

C) defy men's privilege in the society

D) train women in particular fields


186. 

Studying at the same school with men does not mean ______.

A) women can do the same thing as men

B) that women are given the same chance as men

C) women are allowed more latitudes to develop themselves

D) the present educational system does not allow other choices


187. 

According to the passage, in women's schools ______.

A) women are much freer than if they study at the same school with men

B) women could do anything they want

C) they teach things peculiar to women

D) men are hated widely


188. 

Which one of the following statements is not true about women's college?

A) Women feel freer to say what they think.

B) More women can participate in the management of the college.

C) Women who attend a women's college are more likely to be successful in their later careers.

D) A very high percentage of women will become leaders later.


189. 

The title of this passage is most likely to be ______.

A) Women Education in the United States C) Women Should Be Given the Same Education as Men

B) Women's Schools in the United States D) Education in America


Text 11 

Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year old people there are twice as many women as men.     But the great universal (普遍性) of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that for the first time there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more force of evolution has gone.

There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Except in some religious communities, very few women have 15 children. Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average. Most of us have roughly the same number of children. Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have disappeared. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today-everyone being the same in survival and number of children-means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in middle-class compared to the tribe.

For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely, it has involved little physical change. No other species fills so many places in nature. But in the past 100 000 years- even the past 100 years-our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution; they look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something wholly beyond his comprehension. No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were, they will look just like us.

190. 

According to the author, what was the danger a man had to face?

A) Lack of mates.

B) Fierce competition.

C) Lower survival.

D) Gene.


191. 

The sentence There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide perhaps means _____.

A) there is another way to stop the society from making progress

B) you can kill yourself by another means

C) there is another factor to prevent us from evolving

D) we have to find a way to do something


192. 

The example of India interprets that ______.

A) wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people

B) natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor

C) the middle-class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes

D) India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate


193. 

The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because_____.

A) life has been improved by technological advance

B) the number of female babies has been declining

C) our species has reached the highest stage of evolution

D) the difference between wealth and poverty is disappearing


194. 

What is the main idea of the passage?

A) Sex ratio changes in human evolution.

B) Ways of continuing man's evolution.

C) The evolution future of nature.

D) Human evolution going nowhere.

IV. Fill in the Blanks

Directions: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate preposition or adverb. Fill in each blank with only ONE word.

195. 

Will you apply for the position by letter or      person?


196. 

You can call    person, or phone to make your reservation or enquiry.


197. 

He talks to her either   person or on the phone.


198. 

They struck    a friendship with each other on the plane when he was on a business trip to Canada.


199. 

Women with babies have something in common and can strike   a conversation, and they find it easy to talk to one another when there is a baby in the picture.


200. 

The whole report is filled with common remarks; there is nothing worthy      special mention.


201. 

I had let them down and was no longer worthy   their friendship.


202. 

The city of Rome had to appear worthy   its position.


203. 

I don't think his speech was very interesting and exciting, but a couple of points are worthy   mention.


204. 

He's been pouring money   the firm for two years but it's still in trouble.


205. 

The government poured money   the railway program.


206. 

They poured money       British films without doing anything to ensure the quality of the films.


207. 

The doctors can do nothing about him now; the sick man's condition is   hope.


208. 

Poor Lavinia is certainly   hope, and whether she ends by giving the house to her son or her daughter you cannot possibly continue to live there.


209. 

The manager was unable to account   the deficit (赤字) in the firm's bank balance.


210. 

Money was being spent, but the money could be accounted   .


211. 

From his point of view, any difference between men and women was accounted   by education.


212. 

The only factor that can't really be accounted     is time. Who knows how the time flies!


213. 

It is silly to be a slave   social conventions, but it is a risk not to.


214. 

Art is not a slave   fashion, but is always contemporary.


215. 

The water runs in at one end of the pipe and runs   at the other.


216. 

In time of depression, the man wanted nothing   some food for his wife and children.


217. 

There was time now for nothing   actions.


218. 

Frank did nothing   sit in the house for two days, silent and with tears.


219. 

You have brought me nothing   trouble.


220. 

She had experienced nothing    cold and loneliness at his birthday party; she regretted going there.


221. 

In my younger days it was only the people of wealth who went  for holidays on the Continent.


222. 

The soldiers would go   fire and water for their country.


223. 

He went  his medical test in the morning, signed a three-and-a-half-year contract with the company.


224. 

We went   an enormous stressful time trying to make the decision.


225. 

Her blouse doesn't go   her shirt.


226. 

This job doesn't go   my wife, let alone children.


227. 

We shall have to go all   if we are to win the race.


228. 

We intend to go all   to win everything we can; we have the strongest team.


229. 

Despite the threat of war, people went   their work as usual.


230. 

To cheat in exams goes   the school's rules and principles.


231. 

Whether it is right or wrong; however, there is a study which tends to go   this common sense of reasoning.


232. 

Just watch what you say and you do; what you say and you do goes   religious beliefs and will harm your family life.


233. 

The explosion went   in a crowded street in the center of the city, killing two citizens and injuring several others.


234. 

Bombs still go   , children starve to death and people are imprisoned for their thoughts, not their crimes. When will these days be over for ever?

长江师范学院大学英语学业达标考试复习提纲

参考答案


I.Vocabulary and Structure

1. D    2. A    3. B    4. A, D    5. D    6. C    7. C    8. A    9. A    10. B    

11. D    12. B    13. A    14. C    15. D   16. D    17. C    18. A    19. C    20. D   

21. D    22. D    23. C    24. C    25. A   26. A    27. B    28. B    29. A  30. A   

31. A    32. B    33. D    34. C    35. C    36. C    37. A    38. B    39. A   40. D   

41. B    42. A  43. B    44. D    45. A    46. B    47. C    48. B    49. D    50. D

51. A    52. B    53. D    54. A    55. C    56. A   57. A    58. A    59. C    60. C   

61. B    62. A    63. C    64. D    65. B    66. B    67. A    68. B    69. D


II.Cloze

70. of    71. from    72. dead    73. in    74. bringing    75. of   

76. whether    77. slow    78. for  79. encouraging    80. respect   

81. other's    82. enhanced    83. so    84. racial    85. about   

86. continual  87. later    88. expecting    89. out    90. go   

91. improving    92. as much as    93. with    94. by themselves   95. to   

96. about    97. such as    98. being punished    99. in turn    100. but   

101. well    102. embarrassing   103. while    104. on    105. that   

106. raising    107. sixteen-year-old    108. stand by    109. watched  110. determine

111. to    112. for    113. into    114. offer    115. of   

116. through    117. but    118. of  119. how    120. while   

121. four-year-olds    122. because of    123. affect    124. gave    125. on   

126. than    127. with    128. Similarly    129. to    130. fall   

131. real    132. through    133. occur    134. since   135. saving   

136. through    137. whereas    138. more    139. into   


III.Reading Comprehension

140. A   

141. D    142. D    143. D    144. B    145. D   

146. D    147. B    148. B    149. D    150. C   

151. A    152. C    153. A    154. D    155. C   

156. C    157. A    158. B    159. D    160. C   

161. D    162. A    163. D    164. B    165. B   

166. A    167. C    168. A    169. B    170. D   

171. D    172. B    173. B    174. B    175. C

176. A    177. B    178. C    179. C    180. C   

181. C    182. C    183. B    184. C    185. A   

186. B    187. A    188. D    189. B    190. C   

191. C    192. B    193. A    194. D   


IV.Fill in the Blanks

195. in   

196. in    197. in    198. up    199. up   200. of   

201. of    202. of    203. of    204. into  205. into   

206. into    207. past    208. past    209. for    210. for   

211. for    212. for    213. to    214. to   215. out   

216. but    217. but    218. but    219. but    220. but   

221. in/away    222. through   223. through    224. through    225. with   

226. with    227. out    228. out    229. about/ to    230. against

231. against    232. against    233. off    234. off